Welcome to the
A great deal has
been written about Internet Protocol Version 6. You’ve no doubt heard that we’re
running out of IPv4 addresses (the familiar “xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx” numbers) and that
IPv6 is the answer. IPv6 also has many enhancements and improvements over the
But if you’re
like me, maintaining one or more small-to-mid-sized IPv4 networks, you might
wonder: What’s the bottom line? What do I need to do to get ready?
disclaim: If you have a huge, continent-spanning network, what I say here may
not apply to you. (Then again, you’ve probably got a full-time IT staff to
worry about it for you.) I’ll gloss over a lot of detail too. My purpose here
is not to explain the actual IPv6 specification; it’s to help you make an
informed decision about how and when you begin your own upgrade. As usual, you
should do a Web search for more information.
But if you want
the quick, dirty bottom line, go stand at the Internet gateway for your
building. For most of you, it’ll be the router/modem supplied by your ISP.
Look out onto
the Internet and think, “IPv6 Land.”
Now turn around
and look at your in-house network. Think, “MY land. I decide.”
Yep, it’s that
simple. If everything in your facility is chugging along fine with IPv4, there’s no hurry. If you
really wanted to, you could elect not to use TCP/IP at all. I’ll admit that’s
not likely, but keep that in mind when an “IPv6 Consultant” calls and insists
that you need to pay big money to convert everything right away.
I just angered some IPv6 fanbois by
saying that, so I’ll compensate by covering some of IPv6’s advantages later.
There’s no way
to predict the future. IPv6 proponents insist that it’ll be ubiquitous and
worldwide within a few years at most. But there are many people — including
yours truly — who wonder about that. Ironically, third-world nations may
be the first to reach 100 percent on IPv6, because they’re still building their
Internet infrastructure. They don’t have tons of existing IPv4 equipment that
will need replacement.
Many of us do.
Our stations have installed IPv4-only microwave data links for use as STLs. Our
Wheatstone Generation 6 system is IPv4-only. We will not even consider
upgrading these for some time. No doubt you can provide your own examples.
There are ways
to make IPv4 and IPv6 coexist on the same network, but the folks who’ve
actually done this warn that it isn’t perfect. You will have problems with it.
For smaller networks, it’s probably not worth the expense, time and bother.
You need to have
a serious talk with your Internet service provider about their IPv6 migration.
If you host your websites elsewhere, talk to your hosting provider as well. If
they’re rolling out IPv6 soon, you obviously need to ask them for an IPv6
address and the required dual DNS (i.e., both IPv4 and IPv6) entries right
But do have that
serious talk. Yes, the last block of available IPv4 addresses was assigned in
February 2011. When those numbers run out, it’ll either be IPv6 or (as I
suspect) a hot market will develop for available IPv4 values!
For the record,
I haven’t found a single ISP or hosting provider who requires IPv6 at present.
There are still plenty of IPv4 numbers available here in Birmingham. Your
mileage will vary and your city may be different.
other thing you need to consider (and talk about with your ISP). If you are
given an IPv6-only Web presence and DNS entry, people who are on IPv4-networks
may not be able to get to your website. For the record, I have talked to
several ISPs about this and none of them was able to give me a satisfactory answer about
how this will actually be handled during the transition.
The fact that so
much of this is still up in the air alone should be enough to give us pause.
Yes, IPv6 is coming … but let’s do this on our terms and according to our own timetable.
equipment vendors give mixed responses on the subject of IPv6 as well. At the
urging of our editor, I sent several requests for information: Where are you
at? Are you planning to roll out IPv6 and if so, when?
I only got two
responses, from Comrex and Tieline. They were markedly different.
been IPv6-ready for some time now. If you get to a remote site with IPv6-only
Internet access, you can plug and play. You’re ready to go.
The Tieline Genie codec is IPv6-enabled
Comrex, on the
other hand, is where I suspect most vendors are. They’re ready at the hardware
level, needing only a “flash” update or firmware upgrade to make it fly. Tom
Harnett of Comrex provided this gem of a quote when I asked for further
all utilize software stacks that are fully IPv6-capable, and support will
require some changes to the user interface firmware of our devices (e.g., to
enable fields for longer static IP addresses). All our products are
field-upgradable, so these user interface changes will be easy to apply when
required. We actually haven’t released any IPv6-capable firmware to date for
one reason — it hasn’t yet been requested by a single
customer [emphasis mine]. We are
readying major firmware releases including these changes this summer, and will
have firmware ready on request for customers needing IPv6 compatibility before
HOW INTERNET ADDRESSSES ARE ASSIGNED
line” rule is possible because of a very important distinction. The “shortage
of IPv4 addresses” is primarily on the Internet.
addressing is overseen globally by IANA, the Internet Assigned Numbers
Authority. They decide which blocks of addresses will be used for which
purposes. Some are assigned to each region, where a subordinate authority takes
over. In North America, it’s ARIN: the American Registry for Internet Numbers.
If you’re curious, the assignment data is online. For example, you can go to www.dnsstuff.com and enter
any IP address to find out who “owns” it.
ARIN has granted
to our ISP, Hiwaay Information Services, all IPv4 addresses from 18.104.22.168 to
22.214.171.124. Hiwaay, in turn, has leased 126.96.36.199 to us for a mail
server. We “own” this address; no one else can use it on the Internet.
PRIVATE NETWORK VS. THE INTERNET
Each host or
device on any network must have a unique address (whether IPv4, IPv6 or
something else entirely). Some years ago, when it became clear that IPv4
numbers would eventually run out, some workarounds were implemented as a
IPv4 has 32-bit
addresses, permitting 4.3 billion different values, from 0.0.0.0 to
255.255.255.255. Certain blocks are reserved for private networks; the familiar
group from 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255 is just one example. These addresses
cannot be routed on the Internet. In fact, if a data packet makes it onto the
Internet with one of these IP numbers as the source or destination, it’s called
a “martian” and is slaughtered. Who says geeks don’t have a sense of humor?
could have a printer at 192.168.1.200 and mine could have a video camera at the
same address. Since our networks are isolated from one another, we can both use
the same block of numbers without a conflict.
Here’s the key.
Since these networks are isolated, continuing to use IPv4 on a private network
is going to work fine; the biggest thing is to ensure is that your connection
to the Internet will work OK. Now, your ISP may assign your Internet connection
an IPv6 number in the near future. But again, it’s your choice in-house. Don’t
let anyone tell you otherwise.
THE ADVANTAGES OF IPv6
focuses on the much larger IPv6 numbers, so let’s get that out of the way
first. The addresses are 128 bits in size, allowing up to 340 undecillion(!) different
address numbers. How’s that for killing a shortage?
are written as eight 16-bit blocks separated by colons, in hexadecimal (base
16, or “hex” if you’re a geek). One, and only one, string of consecutive zeros
can be replaced by doubled colons. For example, all of these IP addresses might
point to the same host:
(abbreviated, leading zeroes replaced with doubled colons) ::ffff:0:c0a8:01c8.
(By the way,
this is just an illustration. Don’t just assume that you can use Windows’
Calculator program to convert “192.168.1.200” to hex, add the “fe80:0:0:0:0:0”
prefix and call it a day!)
IPv6 specification has several other advantages. I’ll briefly mention a few.
supports more efficient routing. The upper portion of the IP address is a
“prefix” that tells an IPv6-aware router, on the fly, where to send the data.
Rich, complex and layered routing schemes can be implemented easily with IPv6.
more secure. IPSec, or Internet Protocol Security, is mandatory and no longer
optional as it was with IPv4. Everything on an IPv6 wire is encrypted and
Third, you no
longer need Network Address Translation (NAT). At present, the usual setup is
for your IPv4 internal network to access the Internet with a router/modem that
does this for you (see “The Mysteries of Network Masquerading,” RWEE, Aug. 31, 2010). Once
everything is IPv6, NAT will no longer be required. Smaller facilities (and
remember, that’s who I’m targeting here) would probably never notice the
difference, but someone with hundreds of computers accessing the Internet might
see a dramatic increase in performance.
admins who’ve already converted to all-IPv6 claim that it’s actually easier
once you get used to it, because of other advantages such as auto
configuration. If you have a huge internal network, the security and efficiency
alone might make it worth the expense.
think, “Internet, IPv6; but in-house, stick with what we’ve got.”
buying new equipment, you should opt for hardware that can do both IPv6 and
IPv4. You may have to disable the IPv6 for now. But that way you’ll be ready
(or readier, anyway) when you finally make your in-house transition to IPv6.
The key point
that you need to take away from this is that there is no need to panic. For the
Internet, yes, you should become familiar with IPv6. Talk to your ISP and
hosting provider(s). For your internal networks, though, it’s up to you. IPv6
offers some real advantages over IPv4, but if you have a lot of IPv4-only
equipment — as we do — you’ll probably decide just to “let it ride” for now.
And do read up
on IPv6. I’ve only scratched the surface here. Good luck!
Stephen M. Poole,
CBRE-AMD, CBNT, is market chief engineer at Crawford Broadcasting in